Animal research

Enos the space chimp before insertion into the Mercury-Atlas 5 capsule in This rat is being deprived of restful sleep using a single platform "flower pot" technique. Laboratory mice, for example, live for only two to three years, so researchers can study the effects of treatments or genetic manipulation over a whole lifespan, or across several generations, which would be infeasible using human subjects.

Animal testing facts

Animals are used to develop medical treatments, determine the toxicity of medications, check the safety of products destined for human use, and other biomedical, commercial, and health care uses. Maceration grinding into small pieces is used on 1 day old chicks. Poor animal care is not good science. Trying to mirror human diseases or toxicity by artificially creating symptoms in mice, dogs or monkeys has major scientific limitations that cannot be overcome. In fact, the data show that animal studies fail to predict real human outcomes in 50 to The average human life expectancy has nearly doubled over the course of the past one hundred years alone. This is mainly because other species seldom naturally suffer from the same diseases as found in humans.

We actively champion the development, validation, use and regulatory acceptance of alternatives to animal research. In vitro in glass testing, such as studying cell cultures in a petri dish, can produce more relevant results than animal testing because human cells can be used. These animals are especially vulnerable to mistreatment and abuse without the protection of the AWA.

Certain domestic and wild animals have a natural propensity or predisposition for certain conditions that are also found in humans.

They are also obligated to continuously update their animal-care practices based on the newest information and findings in the fields of laboratory animal care and husbandry. It is important to understand the tapestry of laws, regulations, and established practices in place that safeguard the welfare of research animals.

types of animal testing

As well as stipulating minimum housing standards for research animals enclosure size, temperature, access to clean food and water, and othersthe AWA also requires regular inspections by veterinarians.

Prior to beginning a study, scientists must demonstrate that they have considered alternative methods to animal research, that their research cannot be successfully done without animal models, and that their studies are designed to produce needed results and information.

Animal experiments are part of medical history, but history is where they belong.

Animal testing history

In the U. Sources differ for vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Animal shelters also supply the laboratories directly. Over half the primates imported between and were handled by Charles River Laboratories , or by Covance , which is the single largest importer of primates into the U. Research animals are cared for by veterinarians, husbandry specialists, and animal health technicians to ensure their well-being and more accurate findings. According to Nature Genetics "stressed or crowded animals produce unreliable research results, and many phenotypes are only accessible in contented animals in enriched environments, it is in the best interests of the researchers not to cut corners or to neglect welfare issues. So it is with laboratory research. Artificial human skin, such as the commercially available products EpiDerm and ThinCert, is made from sheets of human skin cells grown in test tubes or plastic wells and can produce more useful results than testing chemicals on animal skin. These animals are trained to solve complex tasks while their brain activity is being measured in a pain-free manner. Biomedical research involving animals is beneficial to both humans and other animals. Cats are used as a model to develop immunodeficiency virus vaccines and to study leukemia because their natural predisposition to FIV and Feline leukemia virus.

If vaccines were not tested on animals, millions of animals would have died from rabies, distemper, feline leukemia, infectious hepatitis virus, tetanus, anthrax, and canine parvo virus.

Media Resources Supporting Biomedical Research Americans for Medical Progress believes animal research plays a crucial part in the development of medical, veterinary and scientific breakthroughs.

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Animal Testing