Fractional distillation lab

Fractional distillation procedure

The column contains a number of trays that the liquid collects on as the vapour condenses. Some mixtures form azeotropes , where the mixture boils at a lower temperature than either component. Fractional Distillation in the lab A typical lab fractional distillation would look like this: Figure X: Fractional distillation setup. Liquid will begin to collect in the collection flask. You will see why this is important in a minute. That means that the thermometer has to read exactly the boiling point of the more volatile liquid. By the time the liquid drips back into the flask, it will be very rich in A indeed. So, by heating the mixture, the most volatile component ethanol will concentrate to a greater degree in the vapor leaving the liquid. Remember that the thermometer is measuring the temperature of the vapors not the temperature of the liquid in the flask. This fraction passes into the condenser, which cools it down until it liquefies, and this liquid is collected in the receiving flask. Eventually, the liquid in the flask will end up as pure A. Each time this happens the new vapour will be richer in the more volatile component.

Add several boiling chips. Check that all your connections are tight.

fractional distillation graph

Record these temperatures. Vacuum distillation systems operate at reduced pressure, thereby lowering the boiling points of the materials.

fractional distillation vs simple distillation

If you didn't have the packing, the liquid would all be on the sides of the condenser, while most of the vapour would be going up the middle and never come into contact with it. Likewise, if a sample of air is liquefied, it can be separated into its components to produce liquid oxygenliquid nitrogenand argon.

Solution If you boil the mixture M, it will boil at a temperature T1.

fractional distillation uses

If you sketch this, make sure that you don't completely seal the apparatus. Calculations: 1.

Fractional distillation lab report results

Again you can condense that to give a liquid of the same new composition the red lines. Liquids tend to wet the surface of the packing and the vapors pass across this wetted surface, where mass transfer takes place. Reflux refers to the portion of the condensed overhead liquid product from a fractionation tower that is returned to the upper part of the tower as shown in the schematic diagram on the right. Explain briefly how the separation occurs, making use of the phase diagram above if you think it helps. What do the plateaus on the graph of temperature versus time represent? Here the distillation head and fractionating column are combined in one piece. Moreover, the efficiencies of the vapor-liquid contact devices referred to as plates or trays used in distillation columns, as seen in Figure two, are typically lower than that of a theoretical percent efficient equilibrium stage. Differently shaped packings have different surface areas and void space between packings.

The diagram shows the use of a Liebig condenser and a conical flask as a receiving flask.

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Fractional Distillation of Ideal Mixtures