Research paper on cytokines

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This sort of cytokines presents similar structure, binding to the same cell surface receptor, and they are coded by a family of linked genes located on the human chromosome 9 [ 7 , 12 ]. These cytokines bind to closely related receptors, and many of the encoding genes are clustered in a short region of chromosome 2. A brief explanation of different cytokines activities also will be done, comprising pro- and anti-inflammatory action, cellular immune responses and performance in hematopoiesis. Both of them can block hepatic insulin signalling by interfection of insulin receptor signalling and insulin signal transduction. These immune complexes are prevalent in autoimmune conditions, such as systemic lupus erythematosus SLE , which makes this process highly relevant for the development of autoimmunity. The systemic lupus erythematosus SLE is an autoimmune disease, characterized by the involvement of immune complexes formed from autoantibodies and their specific antigens that are responsible for the clinical manifestation, especially glomerulonephritis, arthritis and vasculitis. Therefore, they can be classified as chemotactic cytokines [ 33 , 72 ].

Therefore, IL acts reducing inflammatory response. It is not well defined but from three of these circulating TNF it is possible to polymerize them forming one kD polypeptide which facilitates the binding of the cytokine with three receptors simultaneously [ 374142 ].

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Type I IFNs present a potent antiviral effect by inhibiting viral replication, increasing the lysis potential of natural killer NK cells and the expression of MHC class I molecules on virus-infected cells, and stimulating the development of Th1 cells.

Thus, this cytokine establishes an antiviral state for long-term control, coordinating the transition from innate to adaptive immunity. The best-known chemokine is IL-8, or CXCL8, which belongs to the CXC chemokine family, and is responsible for neutrophil recruitment and for the maintenance of the inflammatory reaction.

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In general, members of CC chemokines are chemotactic for monocytes, and a small subset of lymphocytes, while CXC chemokines are more specific for neutrophils. Interferon response comprises a series of reactions that alter the expression of a variety of human genes.

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This unique specimen of type II IFN is the primary cytokine involved in macrophage activation named as classical activation and plays a critical role in immunity against intracellular microorganisms. Cytokines, a group of proteins that are expressed by several cell types, act as immune mediators and regulators.

In a very interesting research paper, J.

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In relation to infections, it is observed a recruitment of leukocytes into the affected tissue, resulting in the activation of tissue antigen-presenting cells APC. Different types of cytokines had been discovered, including chemokines, interferons IFN , interleukins IL , lymphokines and tumor necrosis factor TNF [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ]. The peripheral blood lymphocytes of patient presents an excessive production and response to type 1 IFNs, but the involvement of this cytokines on the development of the diseases is still uncertain [ 33 ]. Therefore, in the context of innate immunity, conventional dendritic cells produce relatively small amounts of type I IFN, but produce large amounts of IL, a cytokine that interacts with type I IFN to activate the NK cell response to viral infection [ 7 , 11 ]. IL-1Ra regulates the activity of IL On the other hand, lower levels of circulating type I IFN are observed. In order to standardize the nomenclature, in , during the Second International Lymphokine Workshop, the term interleukin was introduced. It is the main cytokine to stimulate development of Th2 cells. Jian Xiao Jian Xiao. Recruitment of macrophages, neutrophils and T cells to the site of inflammation is strongly stimulated by chemokines. The massive amount of circulating IFN correlates to disease severity, which is likely to be triggered by excessive pDC activation. During the infection process, these cells cluster into the T cell areas of the draining lymph nodes. However, it is in the active form in circulating human blood monocytes. Due to the ability to increase immune response, type I and type II IFN have been explored in clinical trials as treatments for several conditions.
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Cytokines and Diabetes Research