The potential and health hazards of genetically modified organisms
Are GM foods safe? Rather than being a cause of worry, many secondary metabolites are perceived as having potential health benefits for humans and are consumed in increasingly large quantities Murthy et al.
If these claims are correct, it is argued that use of genetically modified crops will hurt the economy and environment, because monoculture practices by large-scale farm production centers who can afford the costly seeds will dominate over the diversity contributed by small farmers who can't afford the technology.
Respect for consumer choice and assumed risk is as important as having safeguards to prevent mixing of genetically modified products with non-genetically modified foods. There are often established protocols for assessing such risks, especially when a change involves exposure to a known toxin.
GM foods are developed — and marketed — because there is some perceived advantage either to the producer or consumer of these foods. Transgenic animals are routinely bred to carry human genes, or mutations in specific genes, thus allowing the study of the progression and genetic determinants of various diseases.
The rich variety of uses for GMOs provides a number of valuable benefits to humans, but many people also worry about potential risks. Principles for the risk analysis of foods derived from modern biotechnology The premise of these principles sets out a premarket assessment, performed on a caseby- case basis and including an evaluation of both direct effects from the inserted gene and unintended effects that may arise as a consequence of insertion of the new gene Codex also developed three Guidelines:.
Countries which have legislation in place focus primarily on assessment of risks for consumer health. In addition, no effects on human health have been shown as a result of the consumption of such foods by the general population in the countries where they have been approved.
Benefits and risks of genetically modified organisms
Issues such as the risk of vaccine-expressing plants being mixed in with normal foodstuffs might be overcome by having built-in identification factors, such as pigmentation, that facilitate monitoring and separation of genetically modified products from non-GMOs. For example, potato Solanum tuberosum is known for its high diversity of secondary metabolites and can have more than 20 sesquiterpenes a single group of related compounds , some of which are thought to confer resistance to diseases Kuc, Another concern is that genetic engineering often involves the use of antibiotic-resistance genes as "selectable markers" and this could lead to production of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains that are resistant to available antibiotics. The approach of comparing new varieties to existing varieties is just as applicable to crops developed by conventional plant breeding as it is to GE crops see Chapter 9. Plant breeders have generally screened for toxins that are typical of the plant group from which a crop was domesticated and have excluded plants that have high concentrations of the compounds. FINDING: The concept of substantial equivalence can aid in the identification of potential safety and nutritional issues related to intended and unintended changes in GE crops and conventionally bred crops. None of his research went to clinical trail; however, the studies do shed some light on the possible complications of GMOs. The transformed biological structure may have both health concerns, as well as alter the nutritional value of the food. If these claims are correct, it is argued that use of genetically modified crops will hurt the economy and environment, because monoculture practices by large-scale farm production centers who can afford the costly seeds will dominate over the diversity contributed by small farmers who can't afford the technology. Perceived risks associated with alterations of plant compounds arise mainly from alterations of plant-specific molecules, popularly known as plant natural products and technically named secondary metabolites. What are genetically modified GM organisms and GM foods? The toxic properties of some plant compounds are understood, but most of these compounds have not been studied. In an effort to respond to critiques about the risks, GMO-proponents have played these papers have as not being statistically significant. In this study, damage to vital organized was not localised to the liver and kidney, but it also extended into the intestinal structure and sperm cells.
based on 66 review